Basic Computer operations
We all know that Computer is a very useful machine. It is very important to properly start and properly shut down the computer. If the power of the computer is turned off, and the files you were working on were not closed, the files and the operating system may get corrupted.
Working on a Computer
Starting a Computer
1. Press the Power button of the computer.
2. When you turn on the computer, lights on the keyboard may blink for a while and you may hear a short beep sound.
3. Your computer takes time before it's ready to use. This process is called booting up, and it can take between 15 seconds to few minutes. The computer knows how to boot because of built-in chip called BIOS (Basic Input/ Output System).
4. When the operating system starts,Windows welcome screen shows up and then ask to enter password if any. The first screen that shows up after Window is successfully loaded is called desktop.
5. Now, you can perform many tasks on the computer.
Shutting down the computer
Before shutting down the PC, you should save and close all the files and applications.
To turn off the computer completely, click the Start button, and then click Shut Down.
If you choose Sleep option, the system uses very little power, the computer starts up comparatively faster and you are back to where you left. You can use sleep option if you are going away for a short time of period.
An operating system is an interface between the user and the computer.
Some of the functions of Operating system are:
It manages all the devices of a computer and keep tracking the status of the device, if it is busy or not.
It checks if the device is processing properly or not.
It also controls software resources of the computer.
It manages the computer’s memory.
It also manages the structure of the files and directory of the computer system.
It keeps track of the amount of disk space used by a particular file.
It permits you to create, copy, move and delete files.
Types of Operating Systems
Some commonly used operating systems are:
DOS- DOS (Disk Operating System) is an operating system that runs from a hard disk drive. The term can also refer to a particular family of disk operating systems, most commonly MS-DOS. It had a command line interface in which a user has to remember the commands to run the program and do other operating system tasks.
For example, the DOS command, dir., will display the list of files in the current directory.
Windows- It is an operating system developed by Microsoft. Some popular versions of Windows operating system are- Windows 98, Windows, 2000, Windows XP, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10.
Linux- It is an operating system designed for personal computers. It is a free and open-source software, which means it can be modified and redistributed.
Mobile operating Systems
Some popular operating systems that are used in mobile phones are:
Android- It is an operating system used in mobile phones and tablets. It is owned and maintained by Google and is an open-source operating system. The android versions were nicknamed after sweets or dessert items like Cupcake (1.5), Donut (1.6), Eclair (2.0), Frozen Yogurt (2.2), Honeycomb (3.0) Jelly Bean (4.1), KitKat (4.4), Marshmallow (6.0), Nougat (7.0), Oreo (8.0) and Pie (9.0).
Symbian- It is an operating system used in mobile phones. Symbian was developed and sold by Symbian Ltd. It is primarily used by Nokia and mobile sold in Japan.
iOS- It is a mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. for iPhone, iPads, and iPods. It is supported only by Apple hardware. iOS 9 is the latest release of this operating system.
Windows 10 operating system
Windows 10 is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft and is used on personal computers.
After loading Windows 10, the first screen that shows up on the monitor is called desktop. From the desktop, you can access different components of Windows 10.
Windows 10 has a picture for the desktop background by default. This is called wallpaper. Small pictures on the desktop are called icons. These icons represent files, folders, applications, etc. At the bottom of the desktop is a long bar called the Taskbar. To the left of the taskbar is the Start button.
Components of Windows 10 Desktop are shown below:
Let us discuss some special icon on the desktop:-
It displays the storage areas of the computer. Through the Computer icon, you can have access all drives, files, and folders on the computer.
On double-clicking on computer icon a window given below shows up on screen:-
To view content of a drive double click on it.
This contains space to store files on the computer.
Files and folders deleted by you goes in the Recycle Bin. From Recycle Bin, you can restore files or folders deleted by mistake.
Permanently Deleting Files
You can permanently delete the content of the Recycle Bin in two ways:
Right-click the Recycle Bin icon and then click Empty Recycle Bin.
Double click the Recycle bin icon, the Recycle bin window will show up and then click on empty the Recycle bin.
Restore Files/Folder from Recycle Bin window
To recover a file from Recycle Bin, right-click the file, and then click Restore.
Taskbar is the long horizontal bar located at the bottom of the screen. To the left is the Start button. Right of the taskbar contains Date/Time. You also see icons of active applications and some shortcuts on the Taskbar.
Start button It is located on the left of the taskbar. On clicking start button the start menu opens and give access to some features.