it402 notes chapter wise
DIGITAL DOCUMENTATION(ADV.)

ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET(ADV.)

DBMS

EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

UNIT: DIGITAL DOCUMENTATION(ADV.)

 

  1. A Style is a predefined combination of various formatting features, like font style, colour, and size that is applied to the selected text in a document to quickly change its appearance.

  2. There are five categories of styles available in Word. Like-Paragraph, Character, Linked

(Paragraph and Characters),Table and List

  1. You can apply built-in styles from the Styles group of the Home tab.

  2. To modify a style, right-click on it in the Styles group and select Modify. 

  3. Word provides another method to apply styles from the Styles pane. It is a floating and dockable pane. `

  4. To update a style from selection-Click on the Update "Style Name" to Match Selection option. "Style Name" is the name of the style that you want to update.

  5. Importing styles to another document-Click on the Import/Export button given at the bottom of the Manage Styles dialog box.

  6. The shortcut key combination to open the Styles pane is Organizer Ctrl+Alt+Shift+S. 

  7. The shortcut key combination to apply Heading 1 style is Alt+Ctrl+1

  8. The styles you apply in your document can be changed by using the Change Styles button on the Styles group of Home tab. It has four options-Style Set,Colours,Paragraph spacing and Fonts.

 

  1. Images and pictures provide an immediate visual impact to the content, catch attention of the readers, and stimulate a better understating of the content. 12.            In Word, there are several ways to insert images in a Word document. 

    • Inserting an image from a file

    • Inserting an image from Clip Art

    • Inserting a scanned image

    • Inserting an image using drag and drop method

    • Inserting an image from the clipboard

  1. Word can import the various types of file formats. The most common types are GIF, JPEG/JPG, PNG and BMP

  2. To insert an image from a file-Click on the Insert tab and select the Picture button in the llustrations group.

  3. Click on the Insert tab. In the llustrations group, click on the Clip Art option.

  4. Clip Art is a collection of pictures or images that are available in Microsoft Office gallery.

  5. Drag and drop refers to selecting an image from a particular location and dragging and dropping it in the document where required.

  6. The clipboard, also known as pasteboard, is a special location on computer, phone, and tablet memory that temporarily stores cut or copied data.

  7. Press Ctrl+C to copy. The image gets copied to the clipboard. 

  8. To resize an image-Drag any Side handle in or out to shrink or stretch and Drag any Corner handle in or out to make it smaller or bigger, respectively.

  9. To rotate an image or a shape-Rotate option in the Arrange group of the Format tab.

  10. Cropping means removing the unwanted area from an image.

  11. Click on the Crop button in the Size group of the Format tab.

  12. You can open the Format Picture dialog box by right-clicking on the image and choosing the Format Picture option.

  13. Shapes is a drawing feature that helps you to draw different objects, like stars, banners, callouts, connectors, etc

  14. Click on the Shapes button in the llustrations group of the Insert tab.

  15. You can change the properties of an object by right-clicking on it and selecting the Format Shape option.

  16. You can change the colour of the drawing object-Click on the Shape Fill drop-down button in the  Styles group of the Format tab.

  17. It is often convenient to group shapes together so that they can be treated as a single object. A group of objects can be formatted in a way similar to an individual object.

  18. Click on the Format tab and select the Group option from the Arrange group.

  19. you can ungroup the multiple grouped objects by selecting the Group> Ungroup option from the Arrange group.

  20. Wrapping text means surrounding an image or a drawing object within the text.

  21. Available in the Arrange group of the Format tab.

  22. In Line with Text: This is the default option. Square: Wraps the text around the square border of the image. Tight: used with irregular or round shapes to wrap the text around it. Through: This option is similar to the Tight option. Top and Bottom: the text will be placed on the Top and Bottom of the image. Behind Text: The image is displayed behind the text (like a watermark), In Front of Text: This option displays the image over the text.

  23. Format tab > Wrap Text drop-down button in the Arrange group.

  24. Align button In the Arrange group of the Format tab .

 

  1. A template is a predefined layout that contains sample content, themes, colours, font styles, background styles, etc.

  2. A template can be created in Word by saving a document as a .dotx or .dot file.

  3. Add-Ins are the additional programs that are used to extend the capabilities of MS Word by adding custom commands and specialised features. 

 

  1. (TOC) consists of headings and sub-headings of a book or document. It includes titles or first-level headings, such as chapter names, an Sometimes it even includes second-level headings, and occasionally third-level headings.

  2. A table of contents usually includes the titles or descriptions of first-level headings (chapters in longer works), and often includes second-level headings (sections) within the chapters as well, and occasionally even includes third-level headings (subsections) within the sections as well.- HIERARCHY OF HEADINGS

  3. Click on the References tab and select the Table of Contents option.

  4. Manual Table -This option allows you to manually enter the headings and subheadings in the table of contents.

  5. In case you want to make modifications in the default style of the table of contents, you can use the Insert Table of Contents option from the sub-menu of the Table of Contents menu.

  6. By default, Word uses three levels of headings as the hierarchy level.

  7. Tab leaders are the lines that join the topics and sub-topics to the page numbers.

  8. To customise the TOC-click on the References tab. Select Insert Table of Contents option-Cick on the Modify button.

  9. Word does not update the TOC automatically You need to update the TOC every time when you make a change.

  10. Click on the References tab and select the Update Table option from the Update Table of Contents Option of Contents group.

 Or The Update Table tab appears on the top-left corner of the TOC. Click on it.

 Or Right-click on the table of contents and select the Update field option from the context menu.

Select the Update entire table option.

  1. Select the References tab > Table of Contents option. click on the Remove Table of

Contents option.-DELETE TOC

 

  1. Mail merge is a tool which allows you to create form letters, mailing labels and envelopes by linking a main document to a data source.

  2. The mail merge process involves the following:

  • The Main Document – contains the text and graphics that are the same for each version of the merged document.

  • Data Source – a file that contains the information to be merged into a document. For example, the names and addresses of the recipients of a letter.

53. Click the Mailings tab > Click Start Mail Merge >Click Step-by-Step Mail Merge Wizard. 54. The Mail Merge task pane appears on the right of your screen. Note there are 6 steps.

Step 1 – Select Document Type

Step 2 – Select Starting Document

Step 3 – Select Recipients

Step 4 – Write Your Letter

Step 5 – Preview Your Letters Step 6 – Complete the Merge

  1. The recipients can come from either an existing Excel file, an Access table or you can create a new list in Word. The recipients list will be saved as a separate file as a Microsoft Access file type. It is saved in the My Data Sources folder.

  2. Mail Merge – Labels

Click the Mailings tab > Click Start Mail Merge > Click Step-by-Step Mail Merge Wizard 

Step 1 – Select Document Type > Click Labels for the document type

  1. There are three documents that are involved in the mail merge process: the main document, the data source, and the merged document.

  2. The data source is a document, spreadsheet or database that contains personalized information such as names, addresses, and phone numbers. 

  3. The Main Document can be a Form Letter, Labels, Email, or Directory. The main document contains the text that does not change.

  4. The Merging process combines the main document with the data source and creates a new document with all the merged information (Merged Document).

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CLASS X,

UNIT: ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET(ADV.)

 

  1. To insert a new worksheet, click on the Insert Worksheet button beside the sheet tabs, or choose- Home>Insert> Insert Sheet from the menu bar, or press Shift+ F11. 

  2. The two ways to refer to the cells of the other sheets: Using a keyboard and Using a mouse.

  3. Data Consolidation function takes data from a series of worksheets or workbooks and summaries it into a single worksheet.

  4. Consolidate option under Data Menu

  5. The function specifies how the values of the consolidation ranges are linked. The Sum function is the default setting.

  6. If you link the data, any values modified in the source range are automatically updated in the target range

  7. SUBTOTAL, totals/adds data arranged in an array—that is, a group of cells with labels for columns and/or rows. choose Data -> Subtotals.

  8. Scenarios are a tool to test “what-if” questions.

  9. For example, if you wanted to calculate the effect of different interest rates on an investment, you could add a scenario for each interest rate, and quickly view the results. 

  10. Using Goal Seek option under Tools menu, you can discover what values will produce the result that you want.

  11. Solver option under Tools menu amounts to a more elaborate form of Goal Seek. The difference is that the Solver deals with equations with multiple unknown variables. It is 68 specifically designed to minimize or maximize the result according to a set of rules that you define.

  12. Spreadsheet also allows you to link the cells from various worksheets and from various other spreadsheets to summarize data from several sources.

  13. A cell reference refers to a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and can be used to find the values or data that you want formula to calculate.

  14. Hyperlinks can be used in Calc to jump to a different location from within a spreadsheet and can lead to other parts of the current file, to different files or even to web sites.

  15. Hyperlinks can be stored within your file as either relative or absolute.

  16. An absolute link will stop working only if the target is moved.

  17. A relative link will stop working only if the start and target locations change relative to each other. Insert > Hyperlink from the menu bar

  18. Four types of hyperlinks:

    • Internet: the hyperlink points to a web address, normally starting with http:// 

    • Mail & News: the hyperlink opens an email message that is pre-addressed to a particular recipient. 

    • Document: the hyperlink points to a place in either the current worksheet or another existing worksheet. 

    • New document: the hyperlink creates a new worksheet.

  19. Linking To External Data-Choose Insert -> Link to External Data.

  20. Spreadsheet software allows the user to share the workbook and place it in the network location where several users can access it simultaneously.

  21. The Tools > Share Document command can be used to switch the mode for a worksheet from unshared to shared.(in Calc)

  22. shared workbooks don‘t allow merging cells, conditional formatting, or inserting pictures/graphs/etc.

  23. Most spreadsheets software automatically turns off some features in shared workbooks. This is to simplify the workbook since multiple people can be working on the file at the same time.

  24. Calc has the feature to track what data was changed, when the change was made, who made the change and in which cell the change has occurred- Record Changes

  25. Multiple reviewers return edited versions of a worksheet at the same time. In this case, it may be quicker to review all of these changes at once, rather than one review at a time. For this purpose, Calc provides the feature of merging worksheets.

  26. A macro is a saved sequence of commands or keystrokes that are stored for later use.

  27. A macro acts as a function. You can pass arguments (values/ parameters) to a macro when call it.

  28. Passsing arguments means you are passing a copy of the value to the function while calling it.

  29. EXCEL allows you to create custom functions using VBA, called the User Defined Functions

  30. Cell object: it allows you to refer to a cell by its row number and column number (ie.

1.1)

  1. Range Object: It allows you to refer to a cell using the standard "A1" notation.

  2. Sorting helps in organising the data of a worksheet.

  3. A relative hyperlink contains a partial address, absolute hyperlink contains the full address of the destination file or web page.

  4. Goal Seek is used to set a goal to find the optimum value for one or more target variables, given with certain conditions.

  5. SUbTOtal feature generates a subtotal of the rows of related data.

      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIT: DBMS

 

  1. A set of characters that represents a valid value is known as data. Data is also a raw and unprocessed form of facts and figures. For example, 3, Deepti,17 etc.

  2. Information is the data , which has been processed and has processed. For example, Roll no. 3 is Deepti who is 17 years old.

  3. Database is the collection of data, which is stored in a systematic manner and can be used to retrieve information quickly and efficiently from a large set of data.

  4. A database may consist one or more tables.A table holds information in the form of rows and columns.

  5. Rows are referred to as record and also known as tuple. A record is a set of related information that belongs to a particular object. For example- student record may contain roll number, name, total marks. 

  6. Columns are referred to as fields. A field describes a specific property of a record, that is why a field is also known as an attribute. It describes information about an entity, e.g.

roll no is an attribute of a student.

  1. A database is basically used by developers, administrators and the end users.

  2. Developers design and develops a database. 

  3. Administrator keep track on database and check authorisation to provide access to the users.

  4. End users are the group of people who really use the database.

  5. The DBMS (Database Management System) is a compurised record keeping system or a software that enables you to create, store, modify and extract information from a database.

  6. Flat File – The data is stored in a single table/ file with plain text format. Fields in the record are separated using delimiters. It is suitable for less amount of data,

  7. Relational databases- Data is stored in multiple tables and can be accessed by establishing a relationship between the tables by using a common field.

  8. Data Redundancy – It refers to duplication of data. It occurs when the same piece of data is duplicated unnecessarily multiple times in a database.

  9. Data inconsistency – It refers to data which is not in consistent form i.e. two files may contain different data of the same entity.

  10. Data Concurrency- Many user can access and modify the shared data at the same time , without violating the data consistency. 

  11. Data Integrity- Maintaining and assuring the accuracy and consistency of data is called data integrity.

  12. Primary key – It is a set of one or more fields that uniquely identifies each row in a table. It does not contain any null or blank value as well as duplicate value. A table can have only one primary key.

  13. Composite Primary key- It refers to a combination of two or more attributes(fields) that uniquely identify the records in the table.

  14. Foreign key- It is a field or set of field that is used to establish a relation between the two tables.

  15. Candidate key- A table might have one or more fields that may uniquely identify the records. Such fields are called Candidate keys.

  16. Microsoft Access is the most popular and powerful Relational Database Management . It is an integral part of MS-Office suite. It organises the data in the form of tables and provides the facility to create relationship between them, using common fields.

  17. There  are four main objects in any database- Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports. 

  18. A table  stores the complete data in a structured manner, in the form of rows and columns. Every table can have finite number of columns but infinite number of rows.

  19. Queries- Enables us to retrieve records from one or more tables of a database or different databases that meet a specific criteria.

  20. Forms- It has an attractive interface that accepts data from the user and inserts it in the corresponding table or query.

  21. Reports- These are used to display the selected data in a printable format. These are used for decision making and analysing the data by the organisations.

  22. Elements of MS-Access

    1. Backstage view : It contains information and commands that apply to the entire database. It can be opened by clicking on the File tab.

    2. Navigation Pane-  It displays a list of new or existing database objects, such as tables, queries, form and reports. It is also known as All Access Objects Pane.

    3. Document Tab- It displays all the opened database objects.

  23. A table can be created by using two views - Design view and Datasheet View 

  24. Design View allows to create any object from scratch . Here,  for a table we can define field names and their types. We can not enter data/ records in the design view.

  25. Datasheet View- It does not allow us to design the table from the scratch , however on the basis on data entered it automatically creates the fields in the table. This view is majorly used to enter the data.

  26. An asterisk(*) sign in the Record Selector in Datasheet View indicates that row is ready to receive a new record.

  27. Every fields or column has its own set of properties known as data type. Data Types describe the characteristics and behaviour of data.

  28. Text Data type – It is used to store text or a combination of text, numeric and special characters upto 255 characters.

  29. Number data type – It is used to store integer values as well as decimal values upto 16 bytes.

  30. Memo data type- It is used to store large quantity of data that can be alphanumeric upto 65,535 characters.

  31. OLE-Object Linking and Embedding is used to embed an object created in another application.

  32. Lookup Wizard- helps us to create a field whose values are chosen from the values stored in another table, query or list.

  33. Calculated data type- is used to create a field that displays na value that is calculated from the other data of the same table.

  34. Sorting is the process of arranging the data in an ascending or descending order.

  35. Referential Integrity- It is implemented when the user wants to fetch data from two or more tables. This is possible if all the tables have at least one common field. It states that foreign key must have a matching primary key. It ensures the accuracy and consistency of data within the tables.

  36. Relationships are the links that associate a field in one table with a field in another table. To fetch common data from multiple tables, we need to define relationship between the tables.

  37. There are four types of relationship- one-to-none, one-to-many, many-to-one and manyto- many.

  38. In one-to-one relationship , a record in a table can have only one matching record in another table and vice-versa. For example one person can be assigned only one Aadhar card number and one Aadhar card number can be allocated to one person only.

  39. In one-to-many relationship , a record in one table is associated with several matching records of another table but a record from the second table is associated with only one record of the first table. For example- one class consists of multiple students but one student belongs to only one class.

  40. In many-to-many relationship, multiple records of one table are associated with several records of another table, and vice-versa. For example a student can be taught by many teachers and a teacher can teach many students.

  41. Field Properties

    1. Caption- defines a caption/ heading when the field is used in a form

    2. Validation Rule- Specifies the criteria that limits the value that can be entered in the field.

    3. Validation Text- specifies the message when a value entered by the user does not satisfy the criteria specified in the validation rule.

    4. Required- This field property enforces data entry for the field.

  42. Wildcards- are the special characters that are used as substitutes for one or more characters in a sting. These are helpful in locating multiple items based on a specified pattern, making the search operation easy.e.g. ?,*,[ ], ! etc.

  43. Wildcard characters are used with LIKE operator which searches for a specified pattern in a field

  44. Grouping allows you to produce summary values for a group. Group by function groups the records that have the same values in a particular field and returns he count of all those values.

 

 

 

UNIT: EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS

 

  1. The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing or using some other medium and means of sending or receiving information is COMMUNICATION.

  2. Objectives of Effective communication 

    1. Development of Interpersonal Skills 

    2. To express effectively & with maximum efficiency

  3. Feedback is a consequence of performance. Feedback plays an important part in communication because it tells both the source and the receiver, how their message are being interpreted. 

  4. Descriptive feedback is the most powerful tool for improving student learning.

  5. The seven C's are: clarity, correctness, conciseness, courtesy, concreteness, consideration and completeness.

  6. Stress refers to a “physical, mental, or emotional strain or tension”.

  7. Unmanaged stress leads to anxiety and sorrow resulting in ill status of mental and physical health

  8. Stress management is vital because it leads to following benefits: 

    • Improves mood • Boosts immune system • Promotes longevity • Leads to burst of physical strength, which is vital for reaching goal • Complete mental and physical engagement for task accomplishment • Increases efficiency and effectiveness • Prevents psychological disorders and behavioural problems.

  9. Stress Management Techniques-

    • Create a routine. ...

    • Stay positive. ...

    • Practice mindfulness and meditation. ...

    • Express gratitude for what you have. ...

    • Exercise. ...

    • Focus on the big picture. ...

    • See a mental health professional.

  10. Self-Reliance - Ability to Work Independently.

  11. Ability to work independently can be enhanced by being self-aware, self-motivated and self-regulated.

  12. An operating system is a software that serves as an interface between the user and the computer.

 

 

  1. The different types of operating systems are as follows:

 

  • Interactive (GUI-based) A graphical user interface is a user-friendly operating system in which commands can be entered by clicking/double-clicking/right-clicking a mouse. Windows operating system is an example of an interactive operating system.

  • Single-user , single-task operating system This type of operating system allows only one user to do a task on the computer and one thing at a time.

  • Single-user, multi-task operating system This type of operating system is used on Desktop computers, laptops, where a single user can operate on several programs at the same time. For example, Windows, Apple MacOS are examples of single-user multi task operating system. 

  • Multi-user A multi-user operating system enables multiple users to work on the same computer at different times or simultaneously.

  • Real Time  A real-time operating system is a computing environment that reacts to input within a specific period of time. It manages the resources of the computer so that any particular operation is executed in the same amount of time every time it is executed. Windows CE and Lynx OS are examples of real-time operating systems. 

  • Distributed A distributed operating system runs on a set of computers that are interconnected by a network. Windows, UNIX, and LINUX are examples of distributed operating systems.

  1. Both internal and external parts of the computer system should be taken care of.

    • Keep the computer dust free. 

    • Do not eat or drink while working on the computer. Food or drink may spill on the system.

    • To keep the keyboard clean, make sure your hands are clean before using it. 

    • CDs and DVDs should be handled carefully so that it does not get any scratches. 

    • Keep keyboard covered when not in use.

  2. A regular disk defragmentation should be done to remove all unnecessary information that slows down the computer. Disk defragmentation done at regular intervals helps the disc space to be used at an optimal level.

  3. A computer virus is a software program that attaches itself to other programs and alters their behaviour. A virus may or may not be destructive.

  4. VIRUS is an acronym for Vital Information Resource Under Seize.

  5. When a virus enters a computer system, it makes copies of itself and carries out the harmful tasks that it is programmed for.

  6. A computer can get infected with virus in any of the following ways:

    • Infected files • Infected pen drives • Infected CD-ROMs/DVD-ROMs • Through infected file attachment of e-mails

  7. Antivirus software is a program designed to detect and remove malicious programs from the computer. Some examples of antivirus software are McAfee Virus Scan, Norton AntiVirus, Microsoft Security essentials, and Quick Heal

  8. A computer firewall could be a programmable device or a software or a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on user-defined security rules.

  9. cookies are small files which are stored on a user’s computer when you visit a website on the internet. These files are designed to hold data specific to a particular client and website.

  10. These files typically contain information about your visit to the webpage or record your login information. This may not always be bad.

  11. You can manage your cookies in order to protect your online activity.