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Basic ICT Skills-:

ICT (Information and Communication Technology) refers to the use of technology for communication and to process information. ICT refers to technology use for regular, everyday tasks: sending an email, making a video call, searching the internet, using a tablet or mobile phone, and more.


Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middle ware, storage, and audio visual systems, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

ICT is formed of several different components, including:

  1. Hardware

  2. Software

  3. Communication Systems

  4. Database system


1. Hardware-: All  physical component / parts / tangible component  are called Computer Hardware.

2. Software-: Software is a set of instructions, data or programs used to operate computers and execute specific tasks.

     Software are Two types-:

a. System Software-: system software is used to operate / control all computer hardware component.

b. Application Software-: These are used to create files such as spreadsheets, databases, presentations and text-based


3. Communication systems –: Networking Device such as Computer,Cell phone and all smart devices which can be connect with internet with telephone lines and wireless signals, which enable connections with other ICT users and the internet.

4.Database system-:To store and retrieve data information we use database system. For example, all the devices such and apps are using database software to backup and restore user data & information for future use.

Each of these components enables ICT users to view, save, edit and share information.

Efficient use of ICT systems can help to streamline business processes. This can lead to more effective use of time and resources.

We use ICT in term of Computer

Computer-: Computer is an electronic device which takes input processing data and gives output.






Basically, Computer are divided into two parts-: 1. Computer Hardware   2. Computer Software


1. Computer Hardware-: Computer have Devices and Component / parts in term of Hardware. 

A device / Peripheral is a unit of physical hardware or equipment that provides one or more computing functions within a computer system. It can provide input to the computer, accept output or both. Computer devices are optional for their use or connect with computer. Example-: if you want to use the functionality of Listen Music on your computer then you need to use speaker otherwise it is not require of speaker every time to operate computer.

Types of Computer Device-:

1. Input Device-: used to interact with, or send data to the computer (mouse, keyboards, etc.)

2. Output Device-: which provides output to the user from the computer (monitors, printers, etc.)

3. Removable Device-: which can easily remove any time (Example Pen drive). 

4. Storage Device-:  Storage, which stores data processed by the computer (hard drives, flash drives, etc.)


Where as computer Parts are the necessary hardware parts, without that parts CPU can not Start.

CPU-: CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. CPU, are responsible for processing and executing instructions.

Parts of CPU-:

  1. Cabinet-: Body of CPU is called Cabinet.

  2. SMPS-: (Switch Mode Power Supply) it works as a Power adopter that is used to convert AC voltage in to DC Voltage.

  3. Motherboard-:  it is a circuit board. it have a collection of Chips, Ports, Slots, Buses, Registers and Buses

  4. RAM-: (Random Access Memory) it is a temporary memory.  

  5. Harddisk-: it is a permanent memory. it save all data permanently. 

  6. Processor-: Brain of Computer. All processing are execute via Processor.

  7. CD / DVD Drive-: Use to play or Access CD/DVD  Data.

2. Computer Software-: Computer Software are Two Types-:

1. System Software -: it is also known as Operating System. To control all Hardware components, System Software are used. Ex-: Window 7, Window 8, Window 8.1, Window 10 

2. Application Software-: Application software used  or designed for fulfill the  User requirement.


System Software / Operating System-: An Operating System Provide a Interface between User & Computer Hardware.



An Operating System controls the Computer Hardware component and Fulfill the User Requirements.

Some common examples of Operating Systems are -:

  1. Windows Operating System

  2. Linux / Unix Operating System

  3. Apple iOS

  4. Google's Android OS

  5. Apple macOS



Block Diagram of Computer it402
Block Diagram of Operating System it402
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