TOPIC-:

1. Communication

2. Methods of communication

3. Meaning of communication

4. Importance of communication

5. skills Elements of communication cycle

6. Perspectives in Communication

7. Factors affecting perspectives in Communication

  • Visual perception

  • Language

  • Past experience

  • Prejudices

  • Feelings

  • Environment

8. Writing skills

1. Communication-: communication help people to know each other better. it helps in removing misunderstanding and certain meaning clarity of thought. communication in any form written, oral, formal informal, visual, interpersonal, intrapersonal help in educating people and connecting them better.

OR

Communication skills allow you to understand and be understood by others. These can include but are not limited to effectively communicating ideas to others, actively listening in conversations, giving and receiving critical feedback and public speaking.

OR

Communication skills involve listening, speaking, observing and empathising. It is also helpful to understand the differences in how to communicate through face-to-face interactions, phone conversations and digital communications like email and social media.​​

2. Methods of communication--:

  • Verbal-: Verbal communication is the use of sounds and words to express yourself, especially in contrast to using gestures or mannerisms (non-verbal communication). Example-: Orally communicating.   

                                                      Click here for details about Verbal Communication.....   

 

  • Non-verbal-: Nonverbal communication refers to gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, eye contact (or lack thereof), body language, posture, and other ways people can communicate without using language. 

   Click here for details about Non-Verbal Communication.....

  

  • Visual-:Visual communication is the transmission of information and ideas using symbols and imagery.   it includes signs, graphic designs, films, typography, and countless other examples.                                             Click here for details about Verbal Communication.....                

3. Meaning of communication-:

4. Importance of communication skills-:

The importance of communication can be summarized as follows:

  • Promotes Motivation-:Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark.

  • Source of Information-: Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions.

  • Fluent Working-: A manager coordinates the human and physical elements of an organization to run it smoothly and efficiently. This coordination is not possible without proper communication.

  • Helps in Socializing-: Communication also helps in socializing. In today life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication.

  • Controlling Process-: Communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behaviour in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.

5. Elements of communication cycle-:

Communication is a two-way exchange of information, i.e., giving and receiving. The communication cycle expresses how the system of conveying and understanding messages operates.

  • Sender: The communication process start with a sender.

  • Ideas /  Message: A sender send a message(giving or asking for information).

  • Encoding: How the sender chooses to bring the message into a form appropriate for sending.

  • Communication channel: Channel is a medium to transfer the message is sent.

  • Receiver: The person or entity to whom the message is sent.

  • Decoding: How the receiver interprets and understands the message.

  • Feedback: the receiver's response to the message.     

       Click here for more details of Communication Cycle

6. Perspectives in Communication-: Perspectives are ideas, views, or fixed ways of thinking. These sometimes affect our communication. For example, if you have a fixed idea that your teacher or father is strict, even when they are being friendly, you may think they are scolding you even though they are polite. In the same way, others may also have fixed ideas about you, which affect whatever you say to them.

7. Factors affecting perspectives in Communication-:

 Sometimes, we are not able to communicate clearly because of barriers that stop us from sharing and understanding messages.

Visual perception-:Visual perception is the brain’s ability to make sense of what we see 

through our eyes. For example, completing partially drawn pictures with visual perception whereas

they may be something else.

Language-:In case of use of incorrect words, unfamiliar language and lack of detail, language

can act as a barrier to communicate what one wishes to convey. For example, language can act as

a barrier when an Indian who only knows Hindi and Chinese who has the knowledge of Mandarin

only want to interact with each other.

Past experience-: Letting our earlier experience stop us from understanding or 

communicating clearly. For example,“This shopkeeper cheated me last time. Let me be careful or  

“I scored low marks in my Maths exam, so I am scared to ask and answer questions in class.”

Prejudices-:Fixed ideas, such as thinking “No one in my class likes me” may stop a student 

from communicating openly in the class.

Feelings-:Our feelings and emotions, such as lack of interest or not trusting the other person

affect communication. For example “I am not feeling well, therefore, I don’t want to talk.”

Environment-:Noise or disturbance in the surroundings may make communication difficult.

Example, talking to a friend in a function where there is loud music being played by the orchestra.

8. Writing skills related to the following:

Writing skills are an important part of communication.  Good writing skills allow you to communicate your message with clarity and ease to a far larger audience than through face-to-face or telephone conversations.

  • Phrases-:A phrase is a words that form a unit within a sentence but is incomplete independently. A phrase lacks both the subject and the object.

Type of Phrases-:​

1. A noun phrase acts like a noun in a sentence. 

Example:

I like to swing the bat hard when I am at the crease. (An object)

Reading novels is a good habit. (A subject)

The probability of happening that match is not much. (A subject)

2.  An adjective phrase is Bullet around an adjective and consists of objective and or       

      articles.

Example:

The horse runs at a good speed.

I was in a hurry then.

I ran as fast as possible.

He works very slowly.

3. A verb phrase is a group of man verbs and helping verbs with in a sentence.

Example-:

This jewellery may be worth millions of ruppes!

4. An adverbial  face is built around an adverb by adding words before or after it.

 Example-:

we strolled thoughts the Gardens very slowly.( adverbial  fees very slowly)

5. A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and is followed by a noun.

Example:

He sacrificed his life for the sake of his country.

In the end, we all have to die.

He is on the way.

By working aimlessly, you will not get success.

In spite of working hard, he was insulted by his boss.

Note: Prepositional phrases include all other types of phrases.

Sentences-:

  • Sentences-:A group of words that makes complete sense is called a sentence. the sentence must contain the subject and a  predicate.

 

 Kinds of sentence-:

  • There are four kinds of sentences:

  •  Assertive or declarative sentence or Statement

  •  Integrative sentence (a Question)

  •  Imperative sentence (a Command)

  •  Exclamatory sentence (an Exclamation) 

1. An Assertive sentence is a sentence that States affect. such a sentence is a simple 

    statement that indicates, asserts or declares something.

    Examples-:

  •  we will not tolerate this.

  •  I am your friend.

 2. An Imperative sentence is a sentence which gives a command, make a request, or

     Expresses a wish. this type of sentence may and with a full stop or an exclamation

     mark.

     Examples-:

  •  Finish your homework.( an order)

  •  Please leave your footwear outside. (a request)

 

3. An Interrogative sentence is a sentence that ask a question.

    Examples-:

  •  Do you enjoy listening to classical music?

  •  Where is your bag?

 4. An  Exclamatory sentence is a sentence that Express sudden and long feelings, 

    such as surprise, wonder, pity, sympathy, happiness, or gratitude.

    Examples-:

  •  Hurry up!

  •  wow, I really love this dress!

Parts of a sentence-:

 Every complete sentence contains two parts---

1.  Subject 

 2. predicate.

  1. Subject-:

                      A subject is a word or group up of words which conveys the name of the person                                      or think that we are asking about.

 

  2. Predicate-: on the other hand, It is the part of the sentence which contains a verb, and

                         state something about the subject.

 

Parts of Speech-:

NOUN - (Naming word)-:

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing or idea.

Examples of nouns: Daniel, London, table, dog, teacher, pen, city, happiness, hope.

Example sentences:     1. Steve lives in Sydney. 

                                        2. Mary uses pen and paper to write letters.

 

PRONOUN - (Replaces a Noun)-:

A pronoun is used in place of a noun or noun phrase to avoid repetition.

Examples of pronouns: I, you, we, they, he, she, it, me, us, them, him, her, this, those

Example sentences:     1. Mary is tired. She wants to sleep.

                                         2. I want her to dance with me.

ADJECTIVE - (Describing word)-:

An adjective describes, modifies or gives more information about a noun or pronoun.

Examples of Adjective: big, happy, green, young, fun, crazy.

Example sentences: The little girl had a pink hat.

 

VERB - (Action Word)-:

A verb shows an action or state of being. A verb shows what someone or something is doing.

Examples: go, speak, run, eat, play, live, walk, have, like, are, is

Example sentences:

1. I like Woodward English.

2. I study their charts and play their games.

 

ADVERB - (Describes a verb)-:

An adverb describes/modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It tells how, where, when, how often or to what extent. Many adverbs end in -LY

Examples: slowly, quietly, very, always, never, too, well, tomorrow, here

Example sentences:

1. I am usually busy. Yesterday,

2. I ate my lunch quickly.

PREPOSITION - (Shows relationship)-:

A preposition shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. They can indicate time, place, or relationship.

Examples: at, on, in, from, with, near, between, about, under

Example sentences: I left my keys on the table for you.

 

CONJUNCTION - (Joining word)-:

A conjunction joins two words, ideas, phrases or clauses together in a sentence and shows how they are connected.

Examples: and, or, but, because, so, yet, unless, since, if.

Example sentences: I was hot and exhausted but I still finished the marathon.

INTERJECTION - (Expressive word)-:

An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses a strong feeling or emotion. It is a short exclamation.

Examples: Ouch! Wow! Great! Help! Oh! Hey! Hi!

Example sentences: Wow! I passed my English test.

                                   Great! – Ouch! That hurt.

Articles-:

English has two articles: 

1. The 

2. A/An. 

 

 

The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns; a/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns. We call the the definite article and a/an the indefinite article.

the = definite article

a/an = indefinite article

When to use The-:

Use the before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific.

"The teacher I spoke to at the school was very friendly." - Here we are talking about one specific teacher (the one I spoke to).

When to use A/An-:

When we are referring to any member of a group we use a/an. It is not important which one we are talking about.

"I want to buy a new car." - There are many types of car. It does not   

                                               matter yet which type I want.

Compare this sentence with:

"I want to buy the car we looked at yesterday." - We use the here 

                                          because we are talking about a specific                                                      car (the one we looked at).

When NOT to use articles-:

 

A and The are not used with...

 

Plural Nouns-:

"Boys like soccer." - This sentence is ok because we are talking to boys in general 

                                   (all  boys).

"The Boys in my school like soccer." - This is ok because we are talking about

                                                                  specific boys (the ones in my school).

Uncountable Nouns-:

"Pollution is a problem." - Pollution is an uncountable noun (a mass noun).

"The pollution in my town is a problem." - This is ok because we are talking about a   specific location.                                                                      

"There is some pollution in my town." -This is ok because some tells us about the amount of pollution.                                                                     

"There is a pollution in my town." -    This is NOT ok because a is only used with countable nouns (a car, a boy) and pollution is uncountable. Water, traffic and snow are other examples of uncountable nouns.                                                                    

                                                                            

                                                           

Real Nouns-:

Don't use articles with real nouns i.e. the names of people or places.

We DO NOT say: "I want to visit the Spain."

Paragraph Writing -:

In the English language, paragraph is a fundamental unit of composition. A forest of a paragraph consists of several sentence   grouped together to talk about aim and subject. does, if paragraph is essentially a collection of sentences that relate to one Central topic.

 Rules for writing a paragraph-:

 Give the paragraph uniformity

 Give the paragraph short

 Use topic sentences

 Leave  out unnecessary details

 End the paragraph with a concluding sentence

 

 A paragraph is usually judged on the following criteria:

1. Introduction( including title)

2. Support/ explain

       This is  further the divided into-

  • Content

  • Expression( fluency, grammar and spelling)

  • Sequencing

3. Conclusion 

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