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Basic Writing Skills-:

Writing skills are an important part of communication.  Good writing skills allow you to communicate your message with clarity and ease to a far larger audience than through face-to-face or telephone conversations.

You might be called upon to write a report, plan or strategy at work; write a grant application or press release within a volunteering role; or you may fancy communicating your ideas online via a blog.  And, of course, a well written CV or résumé with no spelling or grammatical mistakes is essential if you want a new job.



Phrase-: A phrase is a words that form a unit within a sentence but is incomplete independently. A phrase lacks both the subject and the object.

Type of Phrases-:


  1. A noun phrase acts like a noun in a sentence. 


I like to swing the bat hard when I am at the crease. (An object)

Reading novels is a good habit. (A subject)

The probability of happening that match is not much. (A subject)

  2.  An adjective phrase is Bullet around an adjective and consists of objective and or       



The horse runs at a good speed.

I was in a hurry then.

I ran as fast as possible.

He works very slowly.

  3. A verb phrase is a group of man verbs and helping verbs with in a sentence.


This jewellery may be worth millions of ruppes!

  4. An adverbial  face is built around an adverb by adding words before or after it.


we strolled thoughts the Gardens very slowly.( adverbial  fees very slowly)

   5. A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and is followed by a noun.


He sacrificed his life for the sake of his country.

In the end, we all have to die.

He is on the way.

By working aimlessly, you will not get success.

In spite of working hard, he was insulted by his boss.

Note: Prepositional phrases include all other types of phrases.



A group of words that makes complete sense is called a sentence. the                    sentence must contain the subject and a  predicate.


 Kinds of sentence


There are four kinds of sentences:

  1.  Assertive or declarative sentence or Statement

  2.  Integrative sentence (a Question)

  3.  Imperative sentence (a Command)

  4.  Exclamatory sentence (an Exclamation) 

1. An Assertive sentence is a sentence that States affect. such a sentence is a simple 

    statement that indicates, asserts or declares something.


 we will not tolerate this.

 I am your friend.

 2. An Imperative sentence is a sentence which gives a command, make a request, or

     Expresses a wish. this type of sentence may and with a full stop or an exclamation



 finish your homework.( an order)

 please leave your footwear outside. (a request)


3. An Interrogative sentence is a sentence that ask a question.


 Do you enjoy listening to classical music?

 Where is your bag?

 4. An  Exclamatory sentence is a sentence that Express sudden and long feelings, 

    such as surprise, wonder, pity, sympathy, happiness, or gratitude.


 Hurry up!

 wow, I really love this dress!

Parts of a sentence-:

 Every complete sentence contains two parts---

1.  Subject 

 2. predicate.

  1. Subject-:


     A subject is a word or group up of words which conveys the name of the person                       


     think that we are asking about.


  2. Predicate-:

      on the other hand, It is the part of the sentence which contains a verb, and

       state something about the subject.


Parts of Speech-:

NOUN - (Naming word)-:

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing or idea.

Examples of nouns: Daniel, London, table, dog, teacher, pen, city, happiness, hope.

Example sentences:     

1. Steve lives in Sydney. 

2. Mary uses pen and paper to write letters.


PRONOUN - (Replaces a Noun)-: 

 A pronoun is used in place of a noun or noun

phrase to avoid repetition.

Examples of pronouns: I, you, we, they, he, she, it, me, us, them, him, her, this, those

Example sentences:     

1. Mary is tired. She wants to sleep.

2. I want her to dance with me.

ADJECTIVE - (Describing word)-:

An adjective describes, modifies or gives more information about a noun or pronoun.

Examples of Adjective: big, happy, green, young, fun, crazy.

Example sentences: The little girl had a pink hat.


VERB - (Action Word)-:

A verb shows an action or state of being. A verb shows what someone or something

is doing.

Examples: go, speak, run, eat, play, live, walk, have, like, are, is

Example sentences:

1. I like Woodward English.

2. I study their charts and play their games.


ADVERB - (Describes a verb)-:

An adverb describes/modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It tells how,

where, when, how often or to what extent. Many adverbs end in -LY

Examples: slowly, quietly, very, always, never, too, well, tomorrow, here

Example sentences:

1. I am usually busy. Yesterday,

2. I ate my lunch quickly.

PREPOSITION - (Shows relationship)-:

A preposition shows the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word.

They can indicate time, place, or relationship.

Examples: at, on, in, from, with, near, between, about, under

Example sentences: I left my keys on the table for you.


CONJUNCTION - (Joining word)-:

A conjunction joins two words, ideas, phrases or clauses together in a sentence

and shows how they are connected.

Examples: and, or, but, because, so, yet, unless, since, if.

Example sentences: I was hot and exhausted but I still finished the marathon.

INTERJECTION - (Expressive word)-:

An interjection is a word or phrase that expresses a strong feeling or emotion.

It is a short exclamation.

Examples: Ouch! Wow! Great! Help! Oh! Hey! Hi!

Example sentences: Wow! I passed my English test.

                                   Great! – Ouch! That hurt.



English has two articles: 

1. The 

2. a/an. 



The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns; a/an is used to modify

non-specific or non-particular nouns. We call the the definite article and a/an

the indefinite article.

the = definite article

a/an = indefinite article

When to use The-:

Use the before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific.

"The teacher I spoke to at the school was very friendly." - Here we are talking

about one specific teacher (the one I spoke to).

When to use A/An-:

When we are referring to any member of a group we use a/an. It is not important

which one we are talking about.

"I want to buy a new car." - There are many types of car. It does not   

                                               matter yet which type I want.

Compare this sentence with:

"I want to buy the car we looked at yesterday." - We use the here  because we are

talking about a specific car (the one we looked at).

When NOT to use articles-:


A and the are not used with...


Plural Nouns-:

"Boys like soccer." - This sentence is ok because we are talking to boys in general 

                                   (all  boys).

"The Boys in my school like soccer." - This is ok because we are talking about

                                                                  specific boys (the ones in my school).

Uncountable Nouns-:

"Pollution is a problem." - Pollution is an uncountable noun (a mass noun).

"The pollution in my town is a problem." - This is ok because we are talking about a                   specific location.

"There is some pollution in my town." -   This is ok because some tells us about the                   amount of pollution.

"There is a pollution in my town." -    This is NOT ok because a is only used with                  countable nouns (a car, a boy) and pollution is uncountable. Water, traffic and s

now are other examples of uncountable nouns.



Real Nouns-:

Don't use articles with real nouns i.e. the names of people or places.

We DO NOT say: "I want to visit the Spain."

Paragraph Writing -:

Paragraph Writing -:

In the English language, paragraph is a fundamental unit of composition.

A forest of a paragraph consists of several sentence   grouped together

to talk about aim and subject. does, if paragraph is essentially a collection

of sentences that relate to one Central topic.

 Rules for writing a paragraph-:

  •  Give the paragraph uniformity

  •  Give the paragraph short

  •  Use topic sentences

  •  Leave  out unnecessary details

  •  End the paragraph with a concluding sentence


 A paragraph is usually judged on the following criteria:

1. Introduction( including title)

2. Support/ explain

       This is  further the divided into-

  • Content

  • Expression( fluency, grammar and spelling)

  • Sequencing

3. Conclusion    

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